By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications Commission on Physical Sciences, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Space Studies Board, Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics
Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, area experiences Board, Board on Physics and Astronomy, arithmetic, and functions fee on actual Sciences, department on Engineering and actual Sciences, nationwide examine Council
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Extra info for A New Science Strategy for Space Astronomy and Astrophysics
STARS AND STELLAR EVOLUTION 24 normal star, two white dwarfs, or some other configuration of stars. The accreting white dwarf supersoft x-ray sources may be related to the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. As yet, however, there is no clear evidence that these supernovae arise in binary systems at all. Despite these uncertainties, understanding of the physics of the thermonuclear explosions underlying Type Ia supernovae has advanced in a major way with the finding that departures from spherical symmetry are very important.
Both SN 1987A and SN 1993J show evidence for asymmetric ejection of radioactive 56Ni. The enriched knots of Cas A and "bullets" of ejecta from the Vela supernova remnant also indicate departures from a spherically symmetric shell-like structure. Great progress has been made in understanding the physics of core collapse based on the recognition that three-dimensional convection is probably critical to the process. The current calculations still cannot give sufficient asymmetry to account for pulsar runaway velocities whose rates are often 500 km/s or more.
Supernovae Supernovae play a major role in nucleosynthesis. They create all the chemical elements more massive than carbon and much of the carbon as well. In the last decade, multiwavelength studies of supernovae and associated theory, especially of SN 1987A, have brought us closer to a quantitative understanding of how the major elements are made in supernovae. The role of neutrinos from gravitational collapse in forming nuclei via the rprocess has been clarified, although much about the process remains unknown.
A New Science Strategy for Space Astronomy and Astrophysics by National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications Commission on Physical Sciences, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Space Studies Board, Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics