Download PDF by Shay Carlton: Advanced concepts of energy transformation in metabolism

By Shay Carlton

ISBN-10: 1283507544

ISBN-13: 9781283507547

ISBN-10: 8132345967

ISBN-13: 9788132345961

This publication bargains with complex suggestions of strength Transformation in Metabolism Biochemistry. summary: This e-book offers with complicated ideas of strength Transformation in Metabolism Biochemistry

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Replication mtDNA is replicated by the DNA polymerase gamma complex which is composed of a 140 kDa catalytic DNA polymerase encoded by the POLG gene and a 55 kDa accessory subunit encoded by the POLG2 gene. During embryogenesis, replication of mtDNA is strictly down-regulated from the fertilized oocyte through the preimplantation embryo. At the blastocyst stage, the onset of mtDNA replication is specific to the cells of the trophectoderm. In contrast, the cells of the inner cell mass restrict mtDNA replication until they receive the signals to differentiate to specific cell types.

In most cases the proton motive force is generated by an electron transport chain which acts as a proton pump, using the energy in electrons from an electron carrier to pump protons (hydrogen ions) out across the membrane, creating a separation of charge across the membrane. In mitochondria, free energy released from electrons by the electron transport chain is used to move protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space of the mitochondrion. Moving the protons out of the mitochondrion creates a lower concentration of positively charged protons inside it, resulting in a slight negative on the inside of the membrane: The electrical potential gradient is about -200 mV, inside negative.

When organic matter is the energy source, the donor may be NADH or succinate, in which case electrons enter the electron transport chain via NADH dehydrogenase (similar to Complex I in mitochondria) or succinate dehydrogenase (similar to Complex II). Other dehydrogenases may be used to process different energy sources: formate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, H2 dehydrogenase (hydrogenase), etc. Some dehydrogenases are also proton pumps; others simply funnel electrons into the quinone pool.

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Advanced concepts of energy transformation in metabolism biochemistry by Shay Carlton


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