By Trevor M. Penning, J. Mark Petrash
content material: part 1: basic assessment ; 1. advent and assessment of the Aldo-Keto Reductase (AKR) Superfamily ; part 2: AKRS AND ENDOGENOUS TOXICANTS ; 2. Aldo-Keto Reductase-Catalyzed Detoxication of Endogenous Aldehydes linked to Diabetic problems ; three. Aldose Reductase Detoxifies Lipid Aldehydes and Their Glutathione Conjugates ; four. position of Aldose Reductase within the cleansing of Oxidized Phospholipids ; part three: AKRS AND EXOGENOUS TOXICANTS: TOBACCO similar cancer causing agents ; five. Competing Roles of Reductases within the cleansing of the Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Ketone NNK ; 6. Aldo-Keto Reductases and the Metabolic Activation of Polycyclic fragrant Hydrocarbons ; 7. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Dihydrodiol Dehydrogenase from Mouse ; eight effective Synthesis of the lively Metabolites of Carcinogenic Polycyclic fragrant Hydrocarbons ; nine. Chemistry of PAH o-Quinones Generated via the AKR Pathway of PAH Activation ; 10. research of Etheno-2'-Deoxyguanosine Adducts as Dosimeters of AKR Mediated Oxidative rigidity ; part four: AKRS AND EXOGENOUS TOXICANTS: MYCOTOXINS, ALDEHYDES AND KETONES ; eleven. Aflatoxin Aldehyde Reductases ; 12. Competing Reactions of Aflatoxin B1-Dialdehyde: Enzymatic aid vs Adduction with Lysine ; thirteen. using mammalian mobilephone strains to enquire the function of aldo-keto reductases within the detoxication of aldehydes and ketones ; part five: AKRS, the strain reaction AND mobilephone SIGNALING ; 14. Aldose Reductase and the tension reaction ; 15. Aldose Reductase Regulates Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated-Inflammatory signs ; sixteen. Aldo-Keto Reductases within the pressure reaction of the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
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Hurst, H. ; Srivastava, S. K. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2000, 29, 642-651. 39. Ramana, K. ; Aggarwal, B. ; Srivastava, S. K. J. Biol. Chem. 2002, 277, 32063-32070. 40. ; Liu, S. ; Runge, M. ; Bhatnagar, A. Arterioscler Thromb. 2000, 20, 1745-1752. ; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2003. Chapter 4 Role of Aldose Reductase in the Detoxification of Oxidized Phospholipids 1 2 2 Sanjay Srivastava , Kota V. Ramana , Satish K. Srivastava , Stanley E. ch004 3 1 Departments of Medicine, Division of Cardiology and Physiology and Biophysics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 Department of Human Biological Chemistry and Genetics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 1 3 2 Oxidation of phospholipids generates products in which unsaturated fatty acids at the sn-2 position are oxidized to short chain aldehydes or epoxides.
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Reduction of glucose by A R generates sorbitol, which if not effectively converted to fructose, could accumulate in tissues. Because membranes are mostly impermeable to sorbitol, sorbitol accumulation could impose osmotic stress, resulting in the ionic imbalance and the loss of glutathione (7,8). Additionally, the oxidation of NADPH during sorbitol synthesis could diminish the availability of reducing equivalents for antioxidant processes such as glutathione reductase, thereby contributing to generalized oxidative stress and a diminished capacity to reduce reactive oxygen species (9).
Aldo-Keto Reductases and Toxicant Metabolism by Trevor M. Penning, J. Mark Petrash