By Ali Cinar; et al
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But the actual process to make good spaghetti is more complex and requires many well-timed decisions. What should be the temperature of the water when the spaghetti strings are added, how long should the spaghetti be cooked in water, how much oil and what other seasoning and ingredients should be added to the spaghetti sauce? This is a process with several phases (operations in the same vessel for a specific activity such as cooking or fermentation) and stages (operations in different vessels for different activities such as raw material preparation and product separation).
Biological reactors employed for production of commercially significant metabolites using living cells involve two or more phases (a single gas phase, at least one liquid phase, and at least one solid phase). The cells are usually Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 21 22 Chapter 2. Kinetics and Process Models in contact with a liquid phase. Whether the cells are suspended in the liquid phase (suspension culture) or attached to a suitable solid support (immobilized) and in contact with the liquid phase, the interactions between the two phases [biotic phase (cell population) and abiotic phase (liquid)] must be considered and fully accounted for.
Tetracycline is an example of a broad-spectrum antibiotic. The penicillin family includes penicillin G, penicillin V, penicillin O, and many synthetic and semisynthetic derivatives such as ampicillin, amoxicillin, nafcillin and ticarcilin. /3-lactams are the largest group of antibiotics covering approximately 65% of the World market. More than 60% of these antibiotics are penicillin derivatives (either penicillin V or penicillin G). e. penicillin V for oral administration and penicillin G for use in animal feed mixtures or a sterile salt, or it is converted to amoxicillin and ampicillin via 6-APA .
Batch fermentation : modeling, monitoring, and control by Ali Cinar; et al