By B. A. Rubin
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It's been eighty years because the topic of bacterial adhesion to surfaces was once first introduced forth, yet merely within the final twenty years has the significance of this topic been famous via clinical microbiologists. the truth that bacterial attachment to the host tissue is a prerequisite for an infection understandably ended in the desire that infections might be avoided through blocking off the adhesion of pathogenic micro organism.
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy - additionally occasionally termed Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy - has manifold power makes use of in biochemistry and medication. The paramount value of EPR spectroscopy utilized to organic tissues and fluids is that it identifies the alterations in redox procedures that give a contribution to illness.
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A toxic substance which, like lycomarasmine is a peptide, was discovered by Pringle and Braun (1958) in the toxin of Helminthosporium victor iae, treated with a saturated solution of sodium bicarbonate. Hydrolysis of this peptide produces aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, valine and leucine. From the same toxin another compound was isolated with the formula C 1 7 H 2 9 NO, called by the authors victoxinine. This substance completely inhibits the growth of both toxin-resistant and toxin-susceptible seedlings of oats at a concentration of 75y/ml.
The dipeptide lycomarasmine has been identified by Plattner, Clauson-Kaas, Gäumann and others (Clauson-Kaas, Plattner and Gäumann, 1944; Plattner and Clauson-Kaas, 1945; Plattner, Nager and Boiler, 1948) and isolated by Boiler (1951). Lycomarasmine is thought to have the following structural formula: H2NOC—CH2 CH3 I I HOOC—CH—NH—CO—CH2—NH—C—OH Considerably more toxic for tomatoes than free lycomarasmine is its complex with iron (Clauson-Kaas, Plattner and Gäumann, 1944; Gäumann, Naef-Roth and Kobel, 1952a; Gäumann, Kern and Sauthoff, 1952; Gäumann and Naef-Roth, 1953 a).
Krasil'nikov discovered that immediately after its appearance honeydew is sterile and non-toxic; toxicity only becomes apparent after Botrytis cinerea develops on it, and is due to toxic substances secreted by this fungus. Botrytis toxin is not specific, it is soluble in water and alcohol and is thermolabile. Exactly the same toxin was obtained by the author from Botrytis cultured on artificial medium. Although in pathogenic micro-organisms developing on dead substratum the type of metabolism inherent to them is preserved without any significant changes, the amount and the composition of biologically active substances synthesized by them may differ, and differ considerably, from those synthesized by the micro-organisms in contact with living plant tissue.
Biochemistry and Physiology of Plant Immunity by B. A. Rubin