Download e-book for iPad: Biochemistry For Dummies (For Dummies (Math & Science)) by Moore, Richard H. Langley

By Moore, Richard H. Langley

ISBN-10: 1118021746

ISBN-13: 9781118021743

ISBN-10: 1118103955

ISBN-13: 9781118103951

ISBN-10: 1118103963

ISBN-13: 9781118103968

ISBN-10: 1118103971

ISBN-13: 9781118103975

Pt. 1. surroundings the level : simple biochemistry ideas -- pt. 2. the beef of biochemistry : proteins -- pt. three. Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and extra -- pt. four. Bioenergetics and pathways -- pt. five. Genetics : why we're what we're -- pt. 6. The a part of tens

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CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3 Figure 3-2: Examples CH3 CH CH CH2 CH2 CH3 of alkanes, CH C C CH2 CH2 CH3 3 alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Alkane Alkene Alkyne Aromatic Functional groups with oxygen and sulfur Many functional groups contain oxygen, including alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, and ketones. You encounter many of these oxygen-containing functional groups when you study carbohydrates (one of our favorite things). In carbohydrates, many times the ether groups are referred to as glycoside linkages (more on that in Chapter 7).

Achieving equilibrium When the concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+) and hydroxide ion (OH–) are the same, a solution is neutral. If the hydrogen ion concentration exceeds the hydroxide ion concentration, the solution is acidic. If the hydroxide ion concentration is greater, the solution is basic. These chemical species are related through a chemical equilibrium. Acidic solutions, such as lemon juice, taste sour. Basic solutions, such as tonic water, taste bitter. ) The equilibrium of hydrogen ions is present in all aqueous solutions.

Left-handed molecules rotate plane-polarized light to the left, and right-handed molecules rotate plane-polarized light to the right. Identifying chiral molecules The presence of an asymmetric, or chiral, carbon atom is sufficient to produce a “handed” molecule. A chiral carbon atom has four different groups attached to it. The majority of biological molecules have one or more chiral carbon atoms and, for this reason, they’re chiral. Figure 3-8 shows the chiral nature of glucose. Chapter 3: Fun with Carbon: Organic Chemistry CHO C OH Chiral carbon Figure 3-8: HO C H The structure of H C OH glucose, a sugar with H C OH four chiral CH2OH carbon atoms.

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Biochemistry For Dummies (For Dummies (Math & Science)) by Moore, Richard H. Langley

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