Download e-book for kindle: Characterizing the HIV AIDS Epidemic in the Middle East and by Laith Abu-raddad, Francisca Ayodeji Akala, Iris Semini,

By Laith Abu-raddad, Francisca Ayodeji Akala, Iris Semini, Gabrielle Riedner, David Wilson, Oussama Tawil

ISBN-10: 0821381377

ISBN-13: 9780821381373

ISBN-10: 0821381385

ISBN-13: 9780821381380

Regardless of worldwide development in knowing the epidemiology of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), wisdom in regards to the epidemic within the center East and North Africa (MENA) is still restricted and topic to a lot controversy. within the greater than 25 years because the discovery of HIV, no medical examine has supplied a finished, data-driven synthesis of the unfold of HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) within the sector. as a result, the effectiveness of rules, courses, and assets meant to deal with the unfold of HIV/AIDS has been compromised. This file goals to fill the information hole through supplying the first-ever entire medical review and data-driven epidemiological synthesis of HIV's unfold in MENA. it's in line with a literature overview and research of hundreds of thousands of mostly unrecognized guides, experiences, and knowledge resources extracted from medical literature or accrued from resources on the neighborhood, nationwide, and local degrees. The ensuing selection of facts presents a pretty good beginning on which efforts to stem the unfold of HIV/AIDS may be established. Characterizing the HIV/AIDS Epidemic within the heart East and North Africa should be of specific curiosity to coverage makers, researchers, improvement practitioners, and experts in public healthiness and epidemiology.

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Extra resources for Characterizing the HIV AIDS Epidemic in the Middle East and North Africa: Time for Strategic Action (Orientations in Development)

Example text

110 Ibid. ” 113 Ibid. ” 115 Pakistan National AIDS Control Program, HIV Second Generation Surveillance (Round I). 116 Pakistan National AIDS Control Program, HIV Second Generation Surveillance (Round II). 117 Pakistan National AIDS Control Program, HIV Second Generation Surveillance (Round III). 118 Pakistan National AIDS Control Program, HIV Second Generation Surveillance (Round I). 119 Pakistan National AIDS Control Program, HIV Second Generation Surveillance (Round II). 120 Pakistan National AIDS Control Program, HIV Second Generation Surveillance (Round III).

4% in the United States. MENA is a drugtrafficking destination as well as a route for drug traffic to Africa, Europe, and North America. The countries surrounding Afghanistan, such as the Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan, are experiencing increases in heroin usage with the increased supply. 59 50 Ibid. ” 53 UNODC, World Drug Report 2007. 54 Ibid. 55 UNODC, Afghanistan: Opium Survey 2003. 56 UNODC, World Drug Report 2007. ” 58 UNODC, World Drug Report 2007. 61 There is a prevailing perception that the IDU problem in MENA is heavily concentrated among men.

Addiction 93: 1191–97. Lee, R. , and C. M. Renzetti. 1990. ” American Behavioral Scientist 33: 510–28. Lenton, C. 1997. ” Lancet 349: 1005. , N. Broutet, Y. Adu-Sarkodie, P. Barton, M. Hossain, and S. Hawkes. 2006. ” Lancet 368: 2001–16. , F. K. Farahani, M. R. Mohammadi, S. Alikhani, M. Zare, F. R. Tehrani, A. Ramezankhani, A. Hasanzadeh, and H. Ghanbari. 2007. ” J Adolesc Health 41: 407–14. Obermeyer, C. M. 2006. ” BMJ 333: 851–54. , S. Lazzari, N. Walker, and B. Schwartlander. 2003. ” J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 32 Suppl 1: S3–11.

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Characterizing the HIV AIDS Epidemic in the Middle East and North Africa: Time for Strategic Action (Orientations in Development) by Laith Abu-raddad, Francisca Ayodeji Akala, Iris Semini, Gabrielle Riedner, David Wilson, Oussama Tawil


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