By Neil Davison (auth.)
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Extra info for ‘Non-Lethal’ Weapons
151 During the 1970s there was research into the potential for ultrasound and infrasound to cause adverse physiological effects. 153 The development of acoustic weapons is explored in Chapter 7. Directed energy weapons were in the very early stages of development during this period. Research and development was ongoing in the late The Early History of ‘Non-Lethal’ Weapons 29 1960s and 1970s on laser weapons but primarily as ‘lethal’ weapons. By the late 1970s there was considerable investment by the US military and programmes in the UK, Germany, and the USSR.
47 CS was used without restriction and in a manner entirely incompatible with any concept of reduced or ‘non-lethal’ application of force. S. 56 Although the British had long used CS abroad, it was first used on UK territory in 1969 during riots in Londonderry, Northern Ireland. 63 Capsaicin, an extract from the capsicum plant that is a derivative of vanillylamide, was also proposed for use as an irritant chemical weapon as early as World War I, and in the 1950s vanillylamides were considered alongside CS as a replacement for CN.
166 A 1969 report by the UN Secretary General called for States to affirm that the Geneva Protocol applied to all chemical weapons, including irritants. 167 Use of ‘lethal’ chemical weapons during World War I had of course begun with the use of irritant agents. In July 1969 the UK tabled a draft treaty banning biological weapons168 and several months later President Nixon announced the closure of the US biological weapons programme, renouncing the use of all biological agents, including incapacitating agents, and in 1970 he extended this decision to toxins, whether of natural or synthetic origin.
‘Non-Lethal’ Weapons by Neil Davison (auth.)