R. B. Wernham's The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 3: PDF

By R. B. Wernham

ISBN-10: 0521045436

ISBN-13: 9780521045438

This quantity examines the interval of historical past which seems to be at counter-reformation and the fee revolution, 1559-1610.

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Extra info for The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 3: Counter-Reformation and Price Revolution, 1559-1610

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Yet after the treaty of Cateau-Cambresis—the first boundary of this O 14 Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 THE ECONOMY OF EUROPE I559~l6o9 study—we can turn to the other political pause, the truce of April 1609 between Spain and the insurgent United Provinces. This constituted an event of outstanding importance not only, inevitably, in the political but also in the economic sphere. It meant a substantial return to more normal peacetime conditions. It crowned a prologue of three other treaties: between Spain and France (at Vervins on 2 May 1598); between France and Savoy (1601); and between Spain and England (1604).

It is a difficult task even to indicate the complexity of Europe in the second half of the sixteenth century, with its diverse regions relegated to partial autonomy and constituting economies very different in evolution, substance and motivation. In the south and east, Italy was on the point of emerging from the long tribulations of the Italian Wars with their windfall gains and their destructions. For the Italian peninsula the trumpets of Cateau-Cambresis heralded a long peace. And it need hardly be added that the reconstruction there required concentrated investments.

Indeed, it has been said that in perhaps two or three generations the Renaissance added some 10 million more people to Europe. This Europe can be denned as the narrow continent, even if unified only in theory, reaching from the Atlantic to the conventional limit of the Urals, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean. To this area we must also add European Turkey with perhaps, at a conservative estimate, 8 million persons in 1600. In all, some 95 or at most 100 million human beings. This suggests an average density of about 25 per square mile.

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The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 3: Counter-Reformation and Price Revolution, 1559-1610 by R. B. Wernham


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